Long-Term Energy and Emission Pathways for the Swiss Industry

The focus of the thesis was the development of a set of detailed industrial energy models (or modules) for the Swiss industrial sub-sectors, viz. cement, pulp and paper, and food. These sub-sectoral models, which represent an extension of the Swiss TIMES Energy system Model (STEM), entail modelling of production processes with material flows, besides energy and emission flows. The inclusion of production processes and material flows enables tracking of production process-related emissions and their mitigation. These model advancements enabled accounting for efficiency improvements of specific technologies and identification of alternative production process while considering distinct temperature levels for process heat supply. For example, the cement sector has significant process related CO2 emissions and therefore this methodological development is more relevant to explore mitigation options. This is the first time that energy and material flows are combined in a TIMES modelling framework with a very high technology representation of specific industrial sectors at a national scale.