Long-term energy efficiency and decarbonization trajectories for the Swiss pulp and paper industry

Highlights: a.New methodology of a techno-economic bottom-up model for pulp and paper industry. b.Scenario analysis of the Swiss pulp and paper industry. c.Energy-efficiency improvement of 23% without major policy intervention. d.Net-zero CO2 emissions pathway increases energy costs by 49%. e.High-temperature heat pumps and biomass CHP’s are promising technologies.